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Activation of Ras overcomes B-cell tolerance to promote differentiation of autoreactive B cells and production of autoantibodiesLenka S. Teodorovic1, Chiara Babolin1, Sarah L. Rowland, Sarah A. Greaves, David P. Baldwin, Raul M. Torres, and Roberta PelandaDepartment of Immunology, National Jewish Wellness and University of Colorado College of Medicine, Denver, CO 80206 Edited by Michel C. Nussenzweig, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, and authorized May well 28, 2014 (received for review February four, 2014)Newly generated immature B cells are chosen to enter the peripheral mature B-cell pool only if they usually do not bind (or bind limited amount of) self-antigen.Tartrazine site We previously suggested that this selection relies on basal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation mediated by tonic B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling and that this signal could be replaced by an active rat sarcoma (Ras), that are tiny GTPase proteins.PMID:24563649 Within this study we compared the activity of Ras and Erk in nonautoreactive and autoreactive immature B cells and investigated irrespective of whether activation of Ras can break tolerance. Our benefits demonstrate reduce levels of active Erk and Ras in autoreactive immature B cells, though that is evident only when these cells display medium/high avidity for self-antigen. Basal activation of Erk in immature B cells is proportional to surface IgM and dependent on sarcoma family members kinases, whereas it can be independent of B-cell activating element, IFN, and Tolllike receptor signaling. Ectopic expression from the constitutively active mutant Ras kind N-RasD12 in autoreactive cells raises active Erk, halts receptor editing through PI3 kinase, and p.