esidual degree of Caspase 4 Activator web p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in soil. Wu et al. (2018, 2019) also reported that Streptomyces canus GLY-P2 (Wu et al., 2019) and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus CSY-P13 (Wu et al., 2018) could mitigate the anxiety of ferulic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in cucumber by degrading them in soil. Combining two or more agents in biocontrol is an effective approach for the management of soilborne pathogens and has been reported in earlier studies (Awasthi et al., 2011;Yobo et al., 2011; Zaim et al., 2018; Jangir et al., 2019). To our knowledge, this study is the first report on combined application of an antagonistic B. amyloliquefaciens with a phenolic acid-degrading P. ostreatus for cucumber Fusarium wilt illness management. In this study, the combined application of strain B2 and P5 (B2 + P5) showed the best manage IL-2 Modulator Formulation efficacy of Fusarium wilt within a pot experiment (Figure 7). Similarly, quite a few recent studies showed that combined application of Bacillus sp. with beneficial fungi could raise soilborne disease suppression (Zaim et al., 2018). Zaim et al. (2018) investigated the efficacy of the mixture of B. subtilis Bs1 and Trichoderma harzianum T5 against F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in chickpeas and identified much more pronounced disease manage in plants treated with dual inoculation. Sylla et al. (2013) also reported a high level of disease suppression on therapy with numerous strains (B. subtilis FZB24 and T. harzianum T58) against strawberry powdery mildew. This synergism may be attributed for the truth that the biocontrol agents almost certainly use diverse mechanisms of biocontrol and hence complement each other. Several biocontrol mechanisms of Bacillus spp. happen to be reported, which include antimicrobial compound production, competing for niche and nutrients, or induction of local and systemic defense responses of plant (Shafi et al., 2017; Netzker et al., 2020). We discovered a significant positive correlation between disease incidence and FOC abundance (Figure 9), suggesting that a decline in the pathogen population was among the mechanisms underlying the management of plant illnesses with antagonistic strain B2 inoculation. A lot of research demonstrated that the accumulation of phenolic acid in cucumber continuous cropping soil is amongst the essential elements that resulted in severe Fusarium wilt (Ye et al., 2004; Chen et al., 2011; Jin et al., 2020). Earlier research showed that no direct antagonism was observed involving strain P5 and FOC in vitro (Wang et al., 2020). In addition, correlation evaluation showed a optimistic connection among illness incidence and phenolic acid content material (Figure 9). Therefore, the prompt degradation of soil phenolic acids by strain P5 may very well be a significant aspect for decreasing Fusarium wilt.Frontiers in Microbiology | frontiersin.orgAugust 2021 | Volume 12 | ArticleWang et al.Co-application of Bacteria and FungusSimilarly, Xie et al. (2017) reported that phenolic acid-degrading fungus Phomopsis liquidambari considerably suppressed peanut Fusarium illnesses primarily by reducing the content of phenolic acids in continuous cropping soil. Within this study, the impact of strain B2 and P5 either alone or in combination on cucumber plants grown was studied below greenhouse circumstances. The results displayed that all microbial inoculant remedies positively impacted shoot and root growth. All round, the B2 + P5 therapy yielded ideal outcomes more than singly inoculated plants with either strain B2 or P5 (Table