[email protected] Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +1-513-558-Citation: Koehler, A.; Karve, A.; Desai, P.; Arbiser, J.; Plas, D.R.; Qi, X.; Read, R.D.; Sasaki, A.T.; Gawali, V.S.; Toukam, D.K.; et al. Reuse of Molecules for Glioblastoma Therapy. Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 99. https://doi.org/ETA Activator manufacturer ph14020099 Academic Editors: Mike-Andrew Westhoff and Georg Karpel-Massler Received: 14 January 2021 Accepted: 25 January 2021 Published: 28 JanuaryAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can be a hugely malignant major brain tumor. The current standard of care for GBM is the Stupp protocol which includes surgical resection, followed by radiotherapy concomitant with the DNA alkylator temozolomide; having said that, survival beneath this treatment regimen is an abysmal 128 months. New and emerging therapies involve the application of a physical device, non-invasive `tumor treating fields’ (TTFs), such as its concomitant use with standard of care; and varied vaccines and immunotherapeutics being trialed. A few of these approaches have extended life by several months more than normal of care, but in some circumstances are only accessible for any minority of GBM individuals. Extensive activity is also underway to repurpose and reposition therapeutics for GBM, either alone or in combination using the standard of care. In this critique, we present pick molecules that target distinct pathways and are at a variety of stages of clinical translation as case research to illustrate the rationale for their repurposing-repositioning and possible clinical use. Search phrases: glioblastoma; brain cancer; letrozole; S6K1 inhibitors; imipramine blue; Coccidia Inhibitor Purity & Documentation Visudyne; CellCept; saposin CPublisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.1. Introduction 1.1. Molecular Classification Glial tumors could be divided into two categories: diffuse and circumscribed [1]. Diffuse tumors are hugely likely to recur as a result of their nature of malignancy by infiltrating surrounding brain tissue, as opposed to the benign growth pattern of circumscribed tumors. Diffuse gliomas can additional be categorized as WHO grades II, III, or IV tumors. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is synonymous having a WHO grade IV malignancy and accounts for much more than half of all adult principal brain tumors [1,2]. In adult populations, major tumors are generally additional most likely to influence elderly patients, whereas secondary tumors usually have an effect on individuals 45 years of age or younger [2,3]. GBMs is usually main tumors, signifying they may be grade IV at baseline or secondary tumors which have evolved from decrease grade tumors. Low grade histology divisions contain astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, as well as the 3 aforementioned anaplastic forms [1,3]. The 4 main genetic and epigeneticCopyright: 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access post distributed below the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ four.0/).Pharmaceuticals 2021, 14, 99. https://doi.org/10.3390/phhttps://www.mdpi.com/journal/pharmaceuticalsPharmaceuticals 2021, 14,2 ofirregularities noted in GBM are derived from mutations inside the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 genes (IDH1/2), amplification within the epidermal growth aspect receptor (EGFR), amplification of platelet derived development aspect alpha (PDGFRA), plus the loss or mutation of neurofibromatosis sort 1 gene (NF1) [1,3]. Primar.