Eral thousand remained in Finland or escaped to Sweden. Some Karelians who had cooperated with all the Finnish military administration through the occupation also moved to Finland, therefore making the following layer of transnational household ties over the border (Nevalainen 1990, 1996; Kinnunen and Kivim i 2012). Right after the wars, Finland found itself in a semi-dependent position as a capitalist country tied towards the USSR by the Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, signed in 1948. This treaty defined the relations amongst the countries till 1992, when the Soviet Union ceased to exist. Through the post-war period Finland had somewhat restrictive immigration policies, and connections with all the Soviet Union in particular existed merely at the official level. Despite this, more than time tourism amongst the nations began to develop, and communication among separated relatives became probable, although policed initially by the Soviet authorities. Some Soviet citizens, largely women, have been in a position to emigrate to Finland within the 1960s via marriage (Leitzinger 2008). The fall in the Soviet regime as well as the liberalization from the migration regime in Russia and Finland after the end with the 1980s gradually revitalized old kinships and familyhood, and enabled a new sort of emigration to Finland for folks mainly from adjacent Russian locations. This emigration involved 1st folks of Finnish descent–descendants of Finns who had fled to Russia inside the 1920s and 1930s, and Ingrian Finns, too as their loved ones members. These “re-migrants” now comprised roughly a third of all post-Soviet migrants in Finland. The second third was composed of these who moved to Finland around the basis of their family members ties (Leitzinger 2016; Davydova 2009). Marriage can be a gendered migration channel that predominantly includes females. Emigration from Russia right now occurs as a consequence of loved ones ties, study, entrepreneurship, and operate. Currently, estimates in the number of Russian speakers in Finland vary from 80,000 to 100,000, depending around the calculation strategy. In 2020, 84,190 Russian speakers had been officially registered within the nation (Lisinopril-d5 Purity & Documentation Statistics Finland 2021). The atmosphere on the border’s expanding openness for migration and transnational connections changed in 2014 with the development of your war in eastern Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. These events, with the European-wide influx of asylum seekers from outside the EU (2015), have led to the proliferation of a discourse of safety and danger in Finland. These fears centred around the Russian Federation (and embodied in the figure of Putin), Arab and African asylum seekers, and immigrants in the broad sense. In public discussion and following modifications in legislation Russian speakers were conceptualized as a prospective danger to Finland through their attainable dual citizenship and connections with Russia. Russian citizenship was reconceptualized from a constructive resource to an instrument of external and potentially unfavorable influence on the Finnish state. Simultaneously, Russia securitized transnational connections of distinctive levels inside the framework of an all round confrontation together with the West (see Oivo Forthcoming; Davydova-Minguet and P l en 2017; Oivo and Davydova-Minguet 2019; Oivo et al. 2021). We make use of the Remacemide Sodium Channel periodization presented in the starting in the write-up as a frame for our analysis; the confrontation period, the cooperative period, the post-Soviet period, and also the post-Crimean period (for the full e.