G: This function was supported by grants from the Japan Society for the Fluticasone furoate Technical Information Promotion of Science (20K22969) to M.M.C.-R. (80272152; 18H04061) and to C.C. Institutional Assessment Board Statement: All experimental protocols had been approved by the University of Tsukuba Security Committee for Recombinant DNA Experiments (Code: 170110 from 1 December 2017) in which the policy on the Animal Care and Use Committee in University of Tsukuba is integrated. Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Data Availability Statement: All data applied within this study are offered from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Acknowledgments: We thank all members from the Japan Newt Research Community (JNRC) plus the Newtic Organ Regeneration Forum for their valuable comments and discussion, and also the citizens of Toride City for assisting us with the daily maintenance of the newts. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.Biomedicines 2021, 9,17 of
biomedicinesArticlePhoenixin as a new Target in the Improvement of Strategies for Endometriosis Diagnosis and TreatmentKarolina Iwona Kulinska 1, , Miroslaw Andrusiewicz 1, , Anna Dera-Szymanowska two, , Maria Billert three , Marek Skrzypski 3 , Krzysztof Szymanowski 2,4 , Ewa Nowak-Markwitz 5 , Malgorzata Kotwicka 1 and Maria Wolun-Cholewa 1, Citation: Kulinska, K.I.; Andrusiewicz, M.; Dera-Szymanowska, A.; Billert, M.; Skrzypski, M.; Szymanowski, K.; Nowak-Markwitz, E.; Kotwicka, M.; Wolun-Cholewa, M. Phoenixin as a new Target within the Improvement of Methods for Endometriosis Diagnosis and Treatment. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 1427. https://doi.org/10.3390/ biomedicines9101427 Academic Editor: Nikolaos Machairiotis Received: 30 August 2021 Accepted: five October 2021 Published: 9 OctoberChair and Division of Cell Biology, Poznan University of Healthcare Sciences, Clindamycin palmitate (hydrochloride) web Rokietnicka 5D, 60-806 Poznan, Poland; [email protected] (M.A.); [email protected] (M.K.) Clinic of Perinatology and Gynaecology, Poznan University of Health-related Sciences, Polna 33, 60-535 Poznan, Poland; [email protected] (A.D.-S.); [email protected] (K.S.) Division of Animal Physiology, Biochemistry and Biostructure, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wolynska 35, 60-637 Poznan, Poland; [email protected] (M.B.); [email protected] (M.S.) Chair and Department of Health-related Education, Poznan University of Healthcare Sciences, Rokietnicka 7, 60-806 Poznan, Poland Gynecologic Oncology Division, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Polna 33, 60-535 Poznan, Poland; [email protected] Correspondence: [email protected] (K.I.K.); [email protected] (M.W.-C.) These authors contribute equally to this function.Abstract: Little integral membrane protein 20/phoenixin (SMIM20/PNX) and its receptor GPR173 (G Protein-Coupled Receptor 173) play a role in the regulation in the hypothalamic ituitary onadal axis (HPG). The aim in the study was to ascertain PNX, FSH, LH, and 17-estradiol association in females with endometriosis, along with the expression of SMIM20/PNX signaling by means of GPR173. Serum PNX, FSH, LH, and 17-estradiol concentrations have been measured by enzyme and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. SMIM20/PNX and GPR173 expression inside the eutopic and ectopic endometrium was assessed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Reduced PNX level, elevated LH/FSH ratio and elevated 17-estradiol concentration have been located in sufferers with endometriosis. No differences in SMIM20 expression were observed among the studied endometria. GPR173 expression was decrease in ecto.