Bution of the assemblages that comprise the solution (Fig 2, Panel B and Fig 3), we can see that the type frequencies show substantial spatial patterning. The problem, however, is that given any order, how does one distinguish the varying effects of space from those of time? How does one trace the population structure separately from both time and space?A Model-based Approach To Solving The Seriation Conundrum: IDSSWe argue above that seriation would be greatly improved by returning to deterministic seriation methods that use identity data. We further contend that basing seriation algorithms on the behavior of cultural Quisinostat site transmission models derived from evolutionary theory will reduce the scope of the seriation problem, by giving us specific patterns to search for and thus winnowing candidate solutions more strongly than do methods which employ similarity data. Dunnell [26] showed that evolutionary theory can explain why the empirical generalizations driving seriation are true (to the extent they are) and when they fail. Taking historical classes to represent neutral traits (i.e., traits that have no measurable differences in terms of performance and/ or cost), the forces that primarily act on their temporal and spatial distribution are stochastic (drift). This is what produced both the unique, historically non-repetitive sequence of forms on which the seriation method depended and also accounted for unimodal distributions of relative abundances. Others have extended this work considerably [27, 32, 34, 40, 80, 83]. While Neiman [27] has shown that cultural transmission of neutral traits does not always produce unimodal distributions, those distributions of class frequencies that are unimodal have a significant chance of being the product of cultural transmission. Further exploration of the relation of ABT-737 clinical trials unimodality and culture historical practice is warranted but beyond the scope of this paper. When it occurs, however, joint unimodality across several classes is a unique marker which is exceedingly unlikely to occur by chance and definitely occurs through the spatiotemporal diffusion of traits within an interacting population. Thus, where it occurs, unimodality and especially the joint unimodality of multiple classes is a much stricter criterion to use in constructing seriation solutions than monotonic ordering of similarity indices. Many fewer candidate solutions will display joint unimodality than do monotonic similarity, and thus the use of joint unimodality helps avoid the need for brute force enumeration of possible solutions, given an appropriate search method. In addition, cultural transmission models describe the flow of traits as having continuity within the limits of sampling and population size. In other words, we do not expect large jumps or discontinuities, and can use this criterion as a way of ranking possible solutions and even eliminating candidates that display large gaps in frequencies but otherwise are unimodal. Employing both continuity and unimodality as patterns or criteria places very strong constraints on possible solutions, potentially reducing the number of candidates that must be checked by many orders of magnitude. In the following sections, we develop this intuition into an algorithm. That algorithm must meet several requirements in order to be useful. First, the algorithm must allow the analyst to address all of the requirements of the seriation method including unimodality and continuity. Consistent with the.Bution of the assemblages that comprise the solution (Fig 2, Panel B and Fig 3), we can see that the type frequencies show substantial spatial patterning. The problem, however, is that given any order, how does one distinguish the varying effects of space from those of time? How does one trace the population structure separately from both time and space?A Model-based Approach To Solving The Seriation Conundrum: IDSSWe argue above that seriation would be greatly improved by returning to deterministic seriation methods that use identity data. We further contend that basing seriation algorithms on the behavior of cultural transmission models derived from evolutionary theory will reduce the scope of the seriation problem, by giving us specific patterns to search for and thus winnowing candidate solutions more strongly than do methods which employ similarity data. Dunnell [26] showed that evolutionary theory can explain why the empirical generalizations driving seriation are true (to the extent they are) and when they fail. Taking historical classes to represent neutral traits (i.e., traits that have no measurable differences in terms of performance and/ or cost), the forces that primarily act on their temporal and spatial distribution are stochastic (drift). This is what produced both the unique, historically non-repetitive sequence of forms on which the seriation method depended and also accounted for unimodal distributions of relative abundances. Others have extended this work considerably [27, 32, 34, 40, 80, 83]. While Neiman [27] has shown that cultural transmission of neutral traits does not always produce unimodal distributions, those distributions of class frequencies that are unimodal have a significant chance of being the product of cultural transmission. Further exploration of the relation of unimodality and culture historical practice is warranted but beyond the scope of this paper. When it occurs, however, joint unimodality across several classes is a unique marker which is exceedingly unlikely to occur by chance and definitely occurs through the spatiotemporal diffusion of traits within an interacting population. Thus, where it occurs, unimodality and especially the joint unimodality of multiple classes is a much stricter criterion to use in constructing seriation solutions than monotonic ordering of similarity indices. Many fewer candidate solutions will display joint unimodality than do monotonic similarity, and thus the use of joint unimodality helps avoid the need for brute force enumeration of possible solutions, given an appropriate search method. In addition, cultural transmission models describe the flow of traits as having continuity within the limits of sampling and population size. In other words, we do not expect large jumps or discontinuities, and can use this criterion as a way of ranking possible solutions and even eliminating candidates that display large gaps in frequencies but otherwise are unimodal. Employing both continuity and unimodality as patterns or criteria places very strong constraints on possible solutions, potentially reducing the number of candidates that must be checked by many orders of magnitude. In the following sections, we develop this intuition into an algorithm. That algorithm must meet several requirements in order to be useful. First, the algorithm must allow the analyst to address all of the requirements of the seriation method including unimodality and continuity. Consistent with the.